Review of Environmental, Social, and Labor Issues Environmental Review:
Environmental and Labor Issues:
Environmental Classification: This is a category III project according to the IIC’s environmental and labor review procedure because it could produce certain effects that may be avoided or mitigated by following generally recognized performance standards, guidelines, or design criteria. The principal environmental and social issues related to this project include air emissions, solid and hazardous waste management, wastewater and surface management, aeronautical noise, occupational health and safety, emergency and preparedness response and public safety, wildlife control, and labor issues.
Environmental Management System: Airplan has an environmental, occupational health and safety department, which consists of a lead environmental coordinator (who reports directly to the general manager), two environmental specialists (each responsible for three airports), and one occupational health and safety specialist. Airplan is in the process of developing an integrated management system that incorporates ISO 14001, ISO 9001, and OHSAS 18000; this initiative is anticipated to be completed this calendar year.
Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) have been prepared for all six airports; the environmental, occupational health and safety department plans to update the EMPs every two years. As requested by the IIC, Airplan will ensure that the updated versions of the EMPs take into consideration the impacts of the airports after the completion of the expansion/remodeling projects in order to foresee and mitigate the described impacts (such as those related to increased aircraft activity at Los Garzones).
Airplan provides all construction contractors with an environmental, occupational health, and safety (EHS) guide, and all contractors are required to develop their own environmental, occupational health, and safety management plans and have dedicated EHS staff. Airplan’s EHS staff inspects construction sites during their regular visits to each airport.
In addition, the IIC will require Airplan to implement the Environmental and Social Action Plan (ESAP), a standard requirement for all projects financed by the IIC, which addresses the gaps in its current management practices and international best practices, such as International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the IIC environmental and social guidelines and requirements, respectively.
Air emissions: Airplan undertakes air monitoring two times a year at all six airports in conformance with Resolution 0601 of 2006, and reports that it is in compliance.
Solid and Hazardous Waste: Waste is sorted and recycled at Olaya Herrera, José María Córdova, and Los Garzones, a practice which will be expanded to all six airports. Paper, cardboard, glass, metal, aluminum, batteries, fluorescent light bulbs, and other materials are separated and packaged for recycling or recovery. A small quantity of waste is disposed of in local landfills. Hazardous materials are also collected and stored for disposal by third parties through incineration. International waste (waste arriving on international flights), which is only generated at José María Córdova, is placed in red plastic bags by the ground handlers and is stored at the waste storage facility until it is sent off for incineration. A new waste storage facility was recently completed at Olaya Herrera, which will be replicated at the other airports. It includes a separate room with secondary containment to store hazardous materials.
Wastewater and Surface Water: Airplan is in the process of obtaining the necessary wastewater discharge permits. At Olaya Herrera, sewage and stormwater flow to a city-operated treatment facility. At José María Córdova and Los Garzones there are sewage treatment plants. The plant at José María Córdova is operating well and is in compliance with permit conditions; the modifications to the treatment plant at Los Garzones is under way to ensure full compliance. At Antonio Roldán and Las Brujas sewage enters septic systems that are reported to be in need of repairs, which Airplan is undertaking. At El Caraño, Airplan is in the process of completing and making operational a wastewater treatment plant, which Aeronáutica Civil had previously begun constructing.
Stormwater at José María Córdova passes through two large oil/water separators before draining to local streams. This discharge to the stream is tested quarterly (before and after treatment and up and downstream). Oil water separators are also located at fueling facilities at the other airports. Fueling operations are relatively minor at Los Garzones, El Caraño, and Antonio Roldán, as commercial aircraft mainly bring in enough fuel for their return flight and smaller general aviation aircraft take small quantities. At Olaya Herrera, where fueling operations are more significant, all surface water drainage reportedly goes to the city treatment plant.
Aeronautical Noise: Airplan undertakes monitoring noise levels annually at all six airports in conformance with local requirements. In general, there have been no recent noise complaints other than at Olaya Herrera, where Airplan occasionally receives complaints from local residents due to engine run-ups that occur outside of the approved hours of 7 AM and 9 PM at the airport. Airplan will continue to work on enforcing compliance with the run-up procedure, which determines the location and times allowed for engine run-ups; however, Airplan reportedly has no authority to fine offenders. During the time Olaya Herrera was closed for about five years (after José María Córdova was opened in 1985), extensive residential development occurred in close proximity to the airport. Due to past complaints from local residents of ramp noise, a noise barrier (wall) was constructed about ten years ago, which has significantly helped. There is a noise committee at each airport that meets annually. The committees consist of Airplan and community representatives and local officials; the annual noise monitoring results are reviewed at these meetings. As it is difficult to undertake monitoring of airports without correlating results to aircraft monitoring, Airplan is planning on modeling the noise impact at José María Córdova, where a complete iso-lines profile will be developed for the airport and surrounding areas. The results of this study will be useful as they can be shared with local authorities and can be considered in zoning efforts, particularly given the likelihood of further development in the area near this airport. The IIC will require that Airplan undertake similar noise modeling of impacts of current and forecasted operations at airports where the expansion project will result in increased airport operations, as well as extended hours of operation, particularly at Los Garzones, where the runway is being extended to accommodate larger aircrafts for international cargo operation. Noise modeling will also be required at Las Brujas. The model results will be used to work with local officials to ensure compatible development (for instance, so that schools, daycares, and hospitals are not built in high noise areas). The model results will also allow Airplan to undertake stakeholder consultation at Los Garzones and Las Brujas to identify any concerns with planned operational changes (large jet aircraft and increased operating hours) and prepare the community for any anticipated changes.
Occupational Health and Safety: Airplan effectively monitors occupational health and safety for operations and construction. Airplan has one person in the EHS team who is dedicated full time to occupational health and safety. The other EHS environmental specialists also have expertise in the area of health and safety and support health and safety during environmental inspections. It was observed that employees and contractors used personal protective equipment as well as fall protection, such as safety harnesses. Airplan provides contractors with an EHS guide and they are required to have plans and the necessary EHS personnel in place to ensure compliance. As part of the Environmental and Social Action Plan (ESAP) to be developed as per the IIC’s requirement, the company will further improve safety measures regarding the storage of chlorine gas, which is added to the water at José María Córdova’s potable water treatment facility, including improved warning signage, and leak alarms. Employees are regularly provided with health exams (to monitor cholesterol, blood pressure, etc.). In addition, employees are periodically provided with training on a variety of health topics, such as the risks of smoking and alcohol.
Labor: Airplan adheres to the local labor requirements, as well as those required by the IIC. The company has an internal work code (Reglamento Interno de Trabajo). Employees are provided with medical insurance, pension plans, transportation, and training. For instance, firefighters are sent to a course in Bogota at the Centro de Estudios Aeronáutico (CEA), where they receive the necessary certifications. Airplan seeks to employ and train local people near each airport.
Emergency Preparedness/Response and Public Safety: Airplan has developed emergency plans for each airport and follows ICAO’s Annex 14 standards, which are designed to ensure public safety and security. Airplan conducts training and monitors conformance with the plans. A safety newsletter with recommendations for airport staff is sent out monthly to keep employees up to date. Each airport has staffed and equipped fire stations. The airports also maintain a 200% emergency water supply to recharge fire trucks; trucks carry 500 pounds of dry chemical, with 1,000 pounds in reserve. As part of the project, Airplan will replace all the fire trucks at each of the six airports and will purchase ten new ones. In addition, José María Córdova has fire sprinklers in the terminal building. Fire staff inspect tenant facilities, including hazardous material storage, twice a year for fire code violations; it is reported that tenants ask for and implement the recommendations and improvements. According to Airplan’s emergency plan, full scale drills are conducted at each airport every two years in collaboration with the community emergency services with the objective of testing preparedness levels. Smaller drills occur approximately every six months to test various aspects of emergency planning and response. As part of the ESAP, Airplan will continue to closely monitor the contractors working on the expansion project to ensure that passengers and staff at the airports are not exposed to unsafe conditions. Health clinics (Servicios de Sanidad Aeroportuaria) are maintained at all airports to serve passengers and workers.
Potable Water: Potable water is supplied at each airport, and no treatment is required of the water supplied from city sources, such as at Olaya Herrera and Los Garzones. Airplan plans to improve existing water treatment or install water treatment at El Caraño, Antonio Roldán and Las Brujas. The current potable treatment system that is not being used at Los Garzones will be moved to El Caraño. Airplan is in the process of obtaining and updating any necessary permits to operate potable water systems.
Wildlife Control: Airplan has inventoried habitat and fauna at all airports, except for Olaya Herrera; risk assessments have also been conducted as well as the development of fauna management plans at all six airports. The Fauna Management Plan considers land up to 13.5 km outside of the airport. Airplan is trying various methods and equipment to frighten birds away from the airport. For instance, at Las Brujas a gas canon is fired before aircrafts arrive. In addition, Airplan has tried various deterrents to birds. For instance, it ensures that there is no standing water at the airport as it could attract birds. Also, it cuts the grass to levels which the birds don’t feel comfortable in, with the objective of deterring them from the site. A robotic falcon will reportedly be used at José María Córdova to deter birds. Wildlife committees are in place at all six airports, and meet quarterly at Olaya Herrera, José María Córdova, and Los Garzones, and every six months at the other airports. Bird strikes and bird activity and control are discussed along with seeking solutions to off-airport risks. Meeting minutes are submitted to Airplan management and Aeronáutica Civil.
Monitoring and Reporting: Airplan is committed to implementing the mitigation measures included in the EMPs for each airport, as well as to developing and implementing an ESAP to ensure compliance with the IIC’s environmental and workplace health and safety requirements. An annual environmental monitoring report should be submitted to the IIC on the implementation status of the ESAP. This annual report should include updates on environment issues (updated EMPs developed, status of necessary permits, liquid waste/solid waste management, noise modeling/monitoring, any spills and clean-up activities, wildlife management measures), safety (training activities, emergency drills, accident reports, follow-up corrective actions), occupational health (illnesses recorded, training and preventative medicine), and community interaction (stakeholder consultation for airports that may result in a change in the amount and time of flight activity).